Stanford scientists improve perovskite solar-cell absorbers by giving them a squeezeTop: A normal perovskite crystal (left) bends and twists after being squeezed between two diamonds. Bottom: The orange perovskite crystal changes colour as pressure is applied, indicating that different wavelengths of light are being absorbed. (Image credit: Adam Jaffe and Yu Lin)
Three types of large-area solar cells made out of two-dimensional perovskites. At left, a room-temperature cast film; upper middle is a sample with the problematic band gap, and at right is the hot-cast sample with the best energy performance. Image courtesy Los Alamos National Laboratory.