CIGSe modules in standard industrial formats have not yet attained the record efficiency demonstrated at laboratory scale. One possible cause: defects that reduce the efficiency level can form during the course of fabrication.
The Goal: Make solar cells cheaper by eliminating silver and lead from manufacturingVanessa L. Pool, a postdoctoral researcher at SLACâ€™s Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, with an instrument used to observe how a solar cellâ€™s silver contacts form during high-temperature manufacturing. (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
Illustration of the initial charge transfer step in a dye sensitized solar cell. A photon from the sun is absorbed and excites the dye molecule. Subsequently, an electron can is injected into the ZnO-Layer where it can be trapped by so called interface-states. Credit: Mario Borgwardt/HZB